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  • Performance of Stock Market Corporate Sector of Indian Economy is great.

    Deepak Sharma 20 Oct 2021



    Will Global rising inflation, concern of US Economy Stagflation and China slow Economic Growth will halt the India’s Economic growth? To gain such Insights about Economic News and learn with Case Studies and Live Analysis, Visit Best Stock Market Institute in Jaipur. They will guide you with practical analysis in trading, Investment and Career Oriented Courses with 100% placement.



    Last Week on 12th October 2021, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) maintained India’s GDP growth forecast for FY22 and FY23 at 9.5% and 8.5% in its recent World Economic Outlook report. Further India is projected to be the fastest growing economy for Next two years. Finance Minister Nirmala Sitaraman highlighted to keep the liquidity stimulus and to keep central bank policy easy as the country recover from COVID 19. The Central Bank too is projecting the same growth in its recent monetary policy meeting.


    The India Growth story is also showing in Economic Indicators on Month-on-Month basis by showing an upward tick.

    Indian Economy have opened up and recovered from the shock of second wave and almost reached pre-COVID levels due to high vaccination and falling cases which is positive sign for further growth.

    Economic Indicators of Industrial Production, Cement and Steel Consumption, Capital Goods and Consumer goods output, manufacturing goods index have seen robust sequential growth consistently and have almost reached 2019 levels.

    Due to an increase in consumption demand GST collection is robust and reached more than 10% higher to pre-COVID levels.


    Will the Economic recovery Sustain for next 2 year? What are the positive indicators for growth and what are the risk factors which can derail the current economic growth?


    The government of India have ensured liquidity boost to support the economy, sale of asset monetization plan including IPO of LIC, Air India Sale, aggressive divestment of govt owned companies, sector specific schemes, agriculture reforms. This have led to V-shape recovery of Indian Economy. COVID-19 vaccine access and aggressive vaccination program have led to stead fast opening up of economy after the impact of second wave. At the current pace of vaccination India will be able to fully administer doses to all adults by the end of March 2022. Due to this the economic activity in all sectors however uneven have led to rapid recovery in all sectors supported to increased demand from consumers.


    Indian Export and Import Sector have grown rapidly due to pent up demand in global economy and increase in energy and metal prices. There need to be a bit caution as the same can lead to increase in inflation which can have negative impact and central banks increase in interest rate can lead to slowing growth going further.


    Capital expenditure by asset heavy model like real estate, infrastructure, transport and power is yet to kick off as no major capex expansion is seen in this sector. Manufacturing capex is the only sector which have seen significant growth. Service industry have contributed the current economic recovery to a significant extent. This uneven growth is the negative factor and the recovery in asset heavy model will be the key for further growth going forward.


    Government of India stimulus to boost the recovery was met by high budget deficit of 8% and 6.8% in 2020 and 2021 by disinvestment. It would not be further possible to increase deficit and government have to shrink to meet its long term policy stance. Even Central Banks have reduced interest rates to historical lows and have reached its limits so the onus will be on government for effective fiscal policy to ensure further growth and incentives and PLI schemes to manufacturing and agriculture sector. Budget 2022 will play a key driver for further economic growth.


    High inflation in global economy due to surge in commodity and energy prices poses a risk to India’s growth trajectory. The rising inflation is due to supply side constraint during the pandemic. Current inflation trajectory in metals and energy is continuously increasing higher than expected by central banks across the globe. US central bank will start increasing interest rate by mid-2022 and will stop asset purchase program which have infused liquidity in global markets. This can lead to outflow from Indian Stock Markets. Slow growth and rising inflation can lead to stagflation in global economy which is a serious cause of concern for Stock Markets in India and global markets. The central banks in India will have to start increasing interest rates due to headline inflation going above 6% consistently. There is also a concern arising from debt of Chinese companies and slow growth of Chinese economy. This are the key cause of concern in global equity markets which can lead to downward spiral in Indian and Global equity markets.



    The global equity markets have given a rapid recovery and have made new highs due to liquidity boost and low interest rates and have rebounded from the aftershock of COVID 19. Further the current rally can only be sustained by fiscal policy measures and economic reforms. The global cause of concern is rising headline inflation due to surge in commodity and energy prices which can force central banks to start increasing interest rates which can lead to lower consumer spending and consumption which can lead to slow real growth and derail the current stock market rally.


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  • Get Start Bitcoin Trading

    niws institute 24 Sep 2021

    What is bitcoin? :

    Bitcoin was started in the market in 2009. Bitcoin is the world’s first most popular cryptocurrency. Now the question is what is cryptocurrency? As per the name it uses cryptography technique for security its a digital currency. The main aim of Bitcoin is to establish an electronic cash system that was completely secure.

    Bitcoin is not owned by government authority. It can directly send one person to another person. It doesn’t need any banking system.

    You can use Bitcoin all over the world you can transfer it everywhere.

    Bitcoin is notoriously fluid, as has been well-established in the media in recent eras. This high volatility means there’s the implicit to make good profit compasses.

    Bitcoin provides very attractive options for beginners however any of the trading in the market having risk issues.

    Unlike paper cash, bitcoins aren’t issued. Instead, they’re ‘Mined ’ on computers.
    Bitcoin mining requires high-powered computers and a lot of conscientious work, so miners are presently awarded

    With 12.5 bitcoins for every new bitcoin, they bring about.
    Around new bitcoins are mined every day and the max that can ever be is 21 million — this was decided by Satoshi Nakamoto Creator of bitcoin.
    As well as creating new bitcoins, mining serves to authenticate bitcoin deals that have been made in history.

    Miners Have to check that block of bitcoin is accurate. Miners check that bitcoin are not duplicate.

    To earn a bitcoin miner must solve the complex mathematical problem and verify 1MB worth of transaction and it is known as ‘proof of work’.

    For bitcoin trading, you must understand the basic principles of bitcoin.

    The variability of bitcoin is the main attraction for traders. Because its price varies very low to high. So it's normal to have significant losses and profit in bitcoin trading.

    How to start

    Bitcoin is good and must secure an internet connection.

    Open an account in bitcoin exchange here you can buy or sell bitcoin digitally.

    To open a bitcoin exchange account your id verification is completed.

    Risk to trade in Bitcoin

    Over the past years, bitcoin is very successful. Cryptocurrency is very new in the market having security but also have in risk zone also.

    An Unstable market
    As mentioned above, the price of bitcoin is constantly going up and down so it’s really hard to predict what will godown in a given period. While this can lead to healthy payoffs, it can also mean big losses if you misinterpret what’s likely to go down next.


    Bitcoin is very secure and makes sure bitcoin exchange is reputed. Be aware of fake bitcoin exchanges.

    Cyber Attacks

    Make sure you have a good and secure internet connection.

    Reliance on Technology
    Bitcoin is a digital currency fully grounded in technology. This not only leaves it more open to cyber-attacks and fraud but it also means that it isn’t backed up by any physical collateral, correspondent as gold or property. However, bitcoin is worth nothing, If the technology fails or is shut down.
    Emerging Market
    Bitcoin is still in its early stages so there’s little data or experience to draw on. There’s a lot of misdoubt around how it’ll evolve in the coming periods.

    Things you are aware of while buying bitcoins

    l Fees is an important aspect while buying bitcoin.

    l Check Liquidity how its price is vary

    l How much time it will take to complete this process and get bitcoin in your wallet.

    l It is easily accessible from laptop to phone.

    If you want to learn bitcoin trading NIWS Stock Market Institute in Jaipur will provide you with bitcoin courses.

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  • Role of investment advisor in finance market

    Deepak Sharma 1 Jul 2021

    What is an investment adviser?


    An investment adviser is a person who is capable of overseeing the management of all of your financial assets. In addition, he may make investment recommendations on any type of financial instrument like Equity, Debt. Investment advisers are employed by organisations that are registered as Portfolio Management firms. Additionally, financial advisors can charge an hourly rate or a fixed fee for their services. Alternatively, depending on the size of the portfolio, an annual fee may be charged.


    Importance of an investment adviser:


    It is advisable to hire an investment advisor, especially when investors are unfamiliar with financial goods. They ensure that only the best investing techniques are used in the process. The majority of the time, an investment adviser will charge a fee between 0.5 percent and 1 percent of the portfolio's total value. Opting for an investment adviser is the ideal option for people who wish to invest but do not have a thorough grasp of financial goods themselves.

    Furthermore, some investors do not have the time to maintain their portfolios but are well-versed in the financial aspects of the items they invest in. Such investors may choose to hire the services of an investment advisor. They assist in the frequent monitoring and portfolio adjustments necessary to stay up with the constantly changing market conditions and situations.

    Creating a diverse portfolio for long-term financial goals is made easier with the assistance of a qualified investment advisor. They advise on how to avoid making typical financial errors. Additionally, they assist investors in coping with the every day swings in the stock market.

    Financial problems may be pretty tricky to navigate. Things like purchasing and selling stocks, saving for retirement, and ensuring that your estate is protected so that it can be passed on to your children are all complicated and time-consuming. Try to cope with them all on your own, and you'll find yourself spinning in circles.

    A financial advisor can assist you in making sense of all of these responsibilities. Financial advisers may do a comprehensive analysis of your financial position and assist you in developing a financial plan to ensure that your actions are consistent with your long-term financial objectives.

    Apart from that, financial advisers have the investing experience to make wise choices on your behalf to maximize your returns. A financial advisor can assist you in developing an asset allocation that is appropriate for your objectives and in adjusting it if your goals change or as you grow older. Meanwhile, financial experts can assist you in safeguarding your assets, which becomes increasingly crucial as you approach retirement. With the assistance of a financial counsel-or, you can make sure that you are prepared to retire whenever you choose.


    How to choose an investment adviser?


    Despite having just the bare minimum of credentials, many claims to be financial advisers or investment advisors. However, while choosing a professional, an investor must use caution. Individuals will benefit from working with the appropriate financial adviser in many areas of their lives.

    When it comes to selecting a financial adviser, there are a few factors to keep in mind. Checking the educational background and work experience of a financial adviser is the first step. Second, look at what measures the financial adviser has made to improve their understanding of personal finance further. Specifically, measurements are made to ensure that they continue to meet the criteria for their market designation. Third, determining how the financial adviser looks for remuneration and conflicts of interest. Last but not least, they must ensure that they have the necessary fiduciaries, which means that they must act in the best interests of their customers.

    Investment advisers are beneficial in negotiating complex deals because of their extensive experience in a wide range of securities-related fields, including deal structuring, project financing, and securities brokerage. When a client's success is their success, investment advisers are compensated with a fee based on the performance of the securities transaction that allows for a commonality of interest.

    Before anything else, having a good working relationship with your financial adviser is critical. The client's money may be lost when a financial adviser performs poorly and charges excessive fees. As a result, people must invest the necessary time and effort into identifying those who can assist them in planning quickly and successfully.


    In what ways are investment advisors and financial advisors distinct from one another?


    In contrast to an investment adviser, the tasks and obligations of a financial advisor are more extensive. A financial adviser looks at every financial element of a client's life, which includes their investment decisions and their savings and investments. An investment adviser, on the other hand, is solely concerned with the value of the money invested and the goals for total investment development.

    A financial adviser is a professional who performs various tasks, from designing and building a portfolio to constantly monitoring it. They also use their market expertise to create a suitable portfolio that is tailored to the requirements and objectives of their clients. They assist their clients in strategizing their investments by controlling and minimizing risk, as well as creating wealth over the long term with their assets. As a result, they create a financial strategy that is unique to each of their customers. In layman's terms, a financial adviser is someone who helps people with their financial planning. And financial planning encompasses a wide range of activities, including budgeting, investing, and saving for retirement.



    In India, who may claim to be an Investment Adviser?


    1.The following are the minimum requirements that must be met to be considered for the position of investment adviser in India:


    2.In finance, accounting, business management, commerce, economics, the capital market, banking, and insurance, a person should have a professional qualification or a postgraduate certificate, or a postgraduate degree.


    3.Qualifications: Bachelor's degree in any field, with a minimum of five years of experience in advisory services in the financial products, services, funds, assets, or portfolio management industry.


    4.An individual who has completed a postgraduate degree in finance or related subjects and a bachelor's degree in any discipline with five years of experience in the financial sector is eligible to sit for the National Institute of Securities Market's certification exams, which are held twice a year: one in finance and one in any discipline.


    5.The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NISM) Series-X-A: Investment Advisor Certification Examination (Level-1)


    6.Certification Examination of NISM-Series – X-B: Investment Advisor for the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Level-2)


    7.A person may also sit for the Certified Financial Planner examination, which is administered by the Financial Planning Standards Board India, in addition to these options (FPSB).


    8.The net tangible assets or the net tangible assets of a partnership company must not be less than INR 2 lakhs.


    9.Others are required to have a net worth of at least INR 25 lakhs to qualify.


    10.In addition, any insurance agent with five years of experience in the sale of insurance products may apply to become an independent risk advisor if they have a graduate degree in one of the fields listed above.


    The following is a list of the papers that must be submitted with the application:


    Proof of mailing address


    Proof of one's identity


    Degrees, NISM certifications, and CFP certificates are all acceptable forms of qualification evidence.


    The net worth is declared in a certificate issued by the CA.


    Income Tax Returns for the previous three years are required.


    Other declarations are required.




    An investment adviser, also known as a financial planner, investment manager, investment consultant, or financial advisor, helps people to invest their money in multiple asset class like stock market instruments such as equity, debt, bonds, commodities, real estate and derivatives arbitrage.

    An investment advisor typically conducts a thorough analysis of securities, taking into account past performance, current or projected market conditions, and the underlying financial structure of a specific transaction, before making investment recommendations to an individual or group of investors, as appropriate. Investment advisers can be self-employed consultants or employees of well-established companies, such as brokerage firms that handle mutual fund investments.

    Investors that work as investment advisers are often those who have previous expertise in underwriting, project finance, and brokerage. The majority of investment advisors either a fixed fee or a commission based on the asset that is acquired or sold by the client.

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  • Option Greek

    Deepak Sharma 7 Jun 2021

    What is the option Greek?


    The Greeks illustrate the many risk characteristics that come into play while trading options. These dimensions are generally referred to as "the Greeks." The Greek letters Delta, Gamma, Theta, Vega, and Rho, are included in the Greeks. There are also "minor Greeks," which are less often employed to assess risk factors. The Greeks are essential risk management tools that may assist options traders in making educated choices about trade and trade. They assist in determining how various variables like price fluctuations, interest rate changes, volatility, and time influence the price of an option contract.


    If you're interested in trading options, you'll need to know what factors go into determining the contract price before you get started. Before you begin trading options, you must first understand the elements that govern their value and how the contract price fluctuates with the underlying stock.

    Because a beginner options trader may not comprehend what causes unexpected declines and rallies in an option's price, he or she may be in for some unpleasant shocks, some of which may be beneficial, but the majority of which will be detrimental. I'll do my best to make these explanations as basic and straightforward as possible. My objective is to keep things simple and straightforward here, focusing on precisely what matters to you to earn money trading options.

    To assess their worth at any given moment, options contracts are priced using the Black-Scholes pricing model. Stock options are not assets like stocks or bonds; instead, they're contracts. They are more of a wager on the price of a stock at a future date than an investment in anything with intrinsic worth, such as a stock of a firm with profits or a commodities futures contract linked to a deliverable item.

    To trade options, you must first grasp the fundamentals of the Greeks to determine how their value is determined and whether or not you will earn from them even if the market moves in the direction you forecast before the expiry date. Options are valued using the remaining time until expiry and the present asset volatility or the expected volatility due to a future event such as earnings or a critical report.

    Options will rise in value as the likelihood of their expiring in the money rises and will fall in value as the likelihood of expiring in the money falls. Options capture more of their underlying assets move as they grow closer to being in the money, and as they travel farther away from being in the money, they catch less of their underlying assets move.


    Let's learn more about option greek.


    Not only does the movement of the underlying instrument play a role in options trading performance, but so do a variety of other elements. It is determined by elements like the market's direction of movement, the pace of movement, fluctuations in the market, and time to expiry. The 'Option Greeks' are the elements that impact option trading. Option Greeks are divided into five categories:


    1.Delta Options

    2.Gamma Options

    3.Vega Options

    4.Theta Options

    5.Rho Options


    Each of these factors aids a trader's understanding of an option's performance in different conditions. Delta, for example, represents a directional risk, while Gamma represents the underlying instrument's directional rate of change. Theta measures the value of time until the expiration of options, whereas Vega is a measure of the predicted volatility of the underlying. Rho calculates the change in the value of an option depending on interest rate fluctuations.

    Stated, option greeks assist you in assessing the many types of risks connected with an option so that you may make an educated choice about whether to purchase, exercise your right, or exit the position. Let's take a closer look at each of the 'Option Greeks' with its advantage.


    1.The Meaning and Importance of the Greek Option Delta


    It calculates how much an option's price will change in response to a 1 point change in the value of the underlying instrument. For example, if you have a stock option, it will tell you how much the premium price of the option has changed in response to a 1 point change in the stock's value. Assume you purchased Infosys Option for Rs 2500 per share. It increased to Rs 2550 after the purchase. The cost of its choice will not rise by 50 points at this time. This is when the delta of an option comes into play. It indicates how much an option's premium will rise in response to equivalent moves in the underlying instrument.

    The decimal point is used to represent the delta. Deltas on calls are presented as positive values ranging from 0 to 1, while Deltas on puts are presented as negative values ranging from 0 to -1.


    Advantages of Delta


    1.1 The delta indicator tells you how price changes in the underlying instrument will affect your option position.

    1.2 It shows you how profitable an option position is. For example, an in-the-money option with a more significant delta will make you more money than an in-the-money option with a lower delta.

    1.3 Delta will tell you how likely it is that your option will remain in the money. A more significant delta number indicates a larger possibility of your option remaining in the money, while a lower delta value indicates a lesser likelihood. So an option with a delta of 1.0 has a 100% chance of remaining in the money, whereas a delta of 0.25 has a 25% chance of remaining in the money.

    1.4 It aids in the taking of measured risks depending on the delta value.



    2.The Meaning and Importance of the Greek  Option Gamma


    The delta is a measurement of how a one-point change in the value of an underlying instrument affects the premium of an option. The rate of delta change for a one-point change in the value of an underlying instrument is measured by Gamma. As a result, delta measures price change, while Gamma measures the rate of change in delta.

    Gammas have a range of 0 to 1 and are represented as a decimal point. It may have both good and bad implications.


    Advantages of Gamma


    2.1 If you're trading options contracts, Gamma can help you take short and long positions.

    2.2 It also aids in the implementation of advanced option strategies.


    3.The Meaning and Importance of the Greek Option Theta


    In the options market, time is your adversary. Options are strongly reliant on how long they have till they expire. Theta is a metric for how much an option's value has depreciated over time. It indicates how much your option loses after one day. Consider an option with a premium of ten dollars and a theta of 0.05. As a result, it will drop to 9.95 (10-0.05) on the first day, 9.90 the next, and so on.

    Theta begins with a near-zero value and quickly increases, especially in the last weeks before expiration.


    Advantages Of Theta option


    3.1 Theta is very useful for implementing advanced methods, particularly income techniques.


    4.The Meaning and Importance of the Greek  Option Gamma


    Vega is a formula that calculates how much an option's premium changes when the underlying instrument's volatility changes by a percentage point. Options with a high volatility premium are more expensive than those with a low volatility premium.

    Ones with a high degree of volatility As the volatility varies, Vega informs you how much the option price will rise or fall.

    Let's assume the underlying instrument of an option has a volatility factor of 40%, and the current premium is 100, resulting in a vega.

    If the volatility rises by 1% to 41 percent, the premium will rise to 100.10.


    Importance of Gamma


    Delta and Gamma have no relationship with Vega. As a result, traders utilize it to construct delta and gamma neutral option positions. Profits in such trades are contingent on the likelihood of an increase or reduction in volatility.


    5.The Meaning and Importance of the Greek  Option Rho


    For a 1% change in interest rates, Rho calculates the predicted change in the value of an option. Because options are often traded for concise time horizons, and interest rates seldom move over such times, Rho is one of the less often utilized greeks.


    Importance of Rho


    Rho isn't often employed in trading, as previously said. Increased interest rates, on the other hand, raise call prices while lowering put prices, and vice versa.


    Final Takeaway


    The Greeks are a valuable tool for options traders to use to assess the risk of various options. They are used by investors to make new investment choices and assess the risk of their existing portfolios. The Greeks give information that helps investors to make informed judgments.

    A pricing model, such as the Black-Scholes Model, is often used to calculate the price of an option. This model considers a variety of variables, including volatility and pricing options. The Black-Scholes Model, on the other hand, is a European model that works on the premise that the option will not be exercised before its expiry date.

    It's crucial to keep in mind that the Greeks are founded on mathematical formulae. Because of the complexity of the mathematics needed to calculate the Greeks, as well as the need for correct findings, they are often computed using an automated solution. Because they are set up to run certain formulae, you can generally receive the numbers from a broker or brokerage business. While the Greeks may forecast future prices, there is no assurance that they will be accurate.

    In the end, the Greeks are there to assist remove some of the guesswork from options trading. It may be a confusing place to invest for those unfamiliar with the world of options. It is critical to understand that the Greeks do not operate in isolation and that they are continually changing – a change in one Greek might have a ripple effect on the rest of the Greeks. The Greeks are one technique that may be used to assist you in figuring out how much risk you're taking on before making significant investment choices.




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  • Option chain

    Deepak Sharma 3 Jun 2021

    What is Option chain?


    An option chain is a graphic that shows all of the stock option contracts available for Nifty stocks in detail.

    Options may seem to be rows of random numbers at first glance, which might be perplexing. Option chain charts provide helpful information about a security's present value and how it will be influenced over time. An understanding of an options chain may assist investors in being better educated and making the best decisions possible in the market.

    There are two pieces to an options chain: call and put. A call option is a contract that allows you the right, but not the responsibility, to purchase the underlying at a defined price and before the expiry date of the option. A put option is a contract that provides you the right, but not the responsibility, to sell the underlying at a specific price and before the expiry date of the option. The special price is also given, the stock price at which the investor will purchase the shares if the option is exercised. An option chain lists all possible option contracts for specific security, including puts and calls. For the following trading day, the option chain matrix is the most helpful tool. To gauge current market conditions, traders usually look at the columns labeled "last price," "net change," "bid," and "ask."

    It's best defined as a list of all available option contracts. It encompasses both puts and calls on a particular security. It's also referred to as an Option Matrix, and it's essential for trading the next day.

    Skilled users can determine the direction of price changes with the help of the Option Matrix. It also assists in determining whether there is a high or low degree of liquidity. Traders may use it to assess the depth and liquidity of specific strikes in most cases. It correctly collects the following metrics —


    Executed price

    Real-time bid price

    Ask price

    Ask quantity

    Bid quantity


    What Can You Learn From an Options Chain?


    Options for Calls and Puts The calls and puts chains are divided into two portions. A call option offers you the right (but not the duty) to buy 100 shares of stock at a specific price and on a certain date. A put option also offers you the choice (but not the duty) to sell 100 shares on a given day at a specified price. The choices for making a phone call are always given first.


    Expiration Date Options are available with a variety of expiration dates. You may, for example, purchase a call option on a stock that expires in April or another that expires in July. Because there is less time to execute opportunities fewer than 30 days before they expire, their value will swiftly depreciate. Strike, signifier, latest, variation, make an offer, offer quantity, and open interest are all terms used to describe the actions of a trader. Are the columns in the order they appear in an option chain.


    Similar to the underlying stock, each option contract has its symbol. Varying options symbols are used for options contracts on the same stock with different expiration dates.


    Price at which you will strike


    The special price is the price at which you may purchase (if you're buying a call) or sell (if you're selling a put) (with a put). Call alternatives with higher rates are frequently available cheaper than call options with lower strike prices. For put options, the opposite is true: lower strike prices translate into lower option prices. To be executable, the market price must cross above the strike price with options. For example, if a company is now selling at Rs300.00 a share and purchasing a Rs 500.00 call option, the choice is worthless until the market price passes over Rs 500.




    The change column indicates how much the last deal differed from the previous day's closing price. The most recent listed price is the most current price. The transaction and the previous price is the most recent posted deal. The bidding and asking prices represent the current prices at which buyers and sellers are ready to trade.


    Consider options (as well as stocks) to be significant online auctions. Buyers are only willing to pay a certain amount, and sellers are only prepared to take a certain amount. Negotiating takes place on both sides until the bid and ask prices start to converge.


    Finally, the buyer will either accept the given price, or the seller will receive the buyer's bid, resulting in a transaction. You could notice that the bid and ask prices for specific options that don't trade very frequently are pretty far apart. Purchasing an opportunity like this carries significant risk, mainly if you are a novice options trader.


    The premium is the upfront cost that a buyer pays to the seller via their broker to purchase an options contract. Option premiums are stated per share, which means that a single option contract represents 100 shares of the underlying stock. A Rs 50 bonus on a call option, for example, would require an investor to spend Rs 500 (Rs 50 * 100 shares) to purchase that stock.




    As the price of the underlying stock swings, the option's premium moves as well. These variations are referred to as volatility, and they influence the chances of a successful choice. If a stock has minimal volatility and the strike price is a significant distance from the company's current market price, the option has a low chance of being profitable after expiration. The premium or cost of an option is expected if there is a slight possibility that it will be lucrative.


    On the other hand, the bigger the premium, the greater the chance that a contract would be lucrative.


    Other elements that influence the price of an option include the amount of time left on an options contract and how far into the future the contract's expiry date is. For example, as the options contract approaches its expiry date, the premium will fall since there is less time for investors to benefit.


    Options with a longer time to expiration, on the other hand, have a greater chance of moving beyond the strike price and being lucrative. As a consequence, premiums for choices with more time left are often higher.


    The volume of interest and open interest


    The open interest column displays how many options are outstanding, and the volume column indicates how many votes were traded on a given day. The quantity of options available for a stock is known as open interest, and it includes options purchased days ago. A large amount of sincere interest indicates that investors are interested in that stock at that strike price and for that specific expiry date.


    Investors want to see liquidity, which means that there is enough demand for a particular option for them to enter and exit a position readily. However, since there is a seller for every buyer of an option, a significant open interest does not always indicate that the stock will climb or decrease. To put it another way, just because an opportunity has a lot of demand doesn't guarantee the investors who are buying it are accurate about the stock's path.

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    Here are a few advantages of using the Option Chain:


    1.The in-the-money (ITM) and out-of-the-money (OTM) alternatives are discussed.

    2.It may be used to determine the depth and liquidity of individual strikes.

    3.It assists traders in determining option premiums based on the maturity date and strike price associated with the option.

    4.The option chain acts as a warning against index breakouts or significant changes.

    5.Index option chains, unlike stock option chains, provide macro-level indicators. In any case, the former is an effective stock-level indicator.

    6.It gives you a clearer picture of the economic Straddles and Strangulations at different strike prices. It would help them match their investments to market emotions.

    7.There are two parts to an option chain: calls and puts. A call option provides you the choice to purchase a stock, while a put option provides you the opportunity to sell a stock.

    8.The premium, which is the upfront charge paid by an investor for acquiring an option, is the price of an options contract.

    9.The special price of an option, which is the stock price at which the investor purchases the shares if the option is exercised, is also given.

    10.Options have different expiration dates, which affect the premium of the option.




    For retail investors, option chains are undoubtedly the most natural way of presenting the information. The choice quotations are organized in an easy-to-follow order. Traders may determine an option premium by looking at the maturity dates and strike prices for the options they are interested in. Bid-ask quotes, also known as mid-quotes, may be shown inside an option chain depending on how the data is presented. The vast majority of internet brokers and stock trading systems provide option quotations in the form of an option chain, which may be shown in real-time or delayed data. The activity, open interest, and price movements may all be quickly scanned using the chain display. Traders may narrow down the options that are necessary to match a given options strategy.

    Traders may rapidly access information on an asset's trading activity, such as the frequency, volume, and interest by strike price and maturity months. Data may be sorted by the expiry date, from earliest to latest, and then filtered further by strike price, from lowest to highest.

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  • What is Fundamental analysis

    Deepak Sharma 31 May 2021

    Do you also want to dive into the stock market and gain profit? And you're planning to invest your money in stocks.
    Well, If you're going to make money in stocks, then you have to do the same amount of research as you're buying th
    e business itself.

    There are two ways of analysing a stock

    1. Fundamental analysis

    2.Technical analysis

    Fundamental analysis tells you how a company is fundamentally strong. Strong here mean the qualitative and quant
    itative aspects of this company which tells you that the company is strong enough for the long term. It helps you ana
    lyse the fair purchase price of a company compared to its intrinsic value. The inherent value is nothing but the future
    cash flow; this company that can generate technical analysis helps you take short-term calls using historical data. H
    ence fundamental analysis can help you analyse and buy a stock that would give you good returns in the long term.
    At the same time, technical analysis would help you grab short-term trading opportunities—this what you would con
    centrate on introducing fundamental analysis to you.

    Goals of fundamental analysis


    1.predicting the future price movement of the shares and stock
    2.Determining the fair value of the stock
    3.Management evaluation of the shares
    4. Analysing company's financial strength by the stock and shares values
    5.Determining a company's ability to beat competitors


    What is fundamental analysis?


    It's the fundamental analysis that helps you pick a stock for the long term and by a long time here with me where inv
    estment duration is more than five years based upon the category in which this doc lies. The period of stock investm
    ent should be further extended, for example, investment in a small share. The stock should be for a longer duration t
    han a large-cap stock as the small-cap company would need time to Scale up to the level of a large-cap company, an
    d this calls for a still longer investment duration. We know that one should align his goals to the right investment ve
    hicle. If he has to reach their goal, certain factors will influence which investment vehicle you ultimately choose thes
    e factors. Those are your investment Horizon for this goal, your current Financial. Your risk profile and your returns
    expectation, but when this investment vehicle is stock. Another factor that would influence the returns you ultimatel
    y get is the price at which you buy this stock. You might find a good store, but a reasonable purchase price translates
    into good returns. Fundamental analysis helps you here. Allows you to find a fair purchase price of a stock. Fundam
    ental analysis involves analysing quantitative and qualitative aspects of a company. Qualitative elements cannot be
    measured but can be sensed from news related to the company management interviews Etc. A qualitative part would
    involve knowing things. Like what is the management team? What is the experience education capability to run the
    business Etc? Does the company protect the interest of minority shareholders? What are business ethics The compan
    y follows? Other promoters involved in unfair activities like increasing share prices Etc. Do they favour friends, rela
    tives Etc? All these activities wouldn't be in favour of the company in the long term. So all these should be avoided.

    You should know about the people who have a significant shareholding in the company. You should know about the
    corporate governance of the company, as the appointment of directors organisation structure transparency and all thi
    s etcetera. So this list could go on and on, but you have to sense these all qualitative aspects, as we discussed earlier
    from the news related to the company management interviews Etc. The quantitative aspects of the company involve
    studying the profit and loss statement of the company, its balance sheets and your reports cash flow statement, whic
    h helps you analyse the profitability of the company, its debts margin financial ratios Etc a company, which is vital i
    n terms of quantitative as well as qualitative aspects would show steady growth in a long time generating good retur
    ns for its investors.

    You've to be very picky if you find any fault in criteria followed by the company and paperwork while buying share
    s or stocks. Fundamental analysis is the essential thing you should do before investing your money and choosing any
    store. Some private websites and organisations provide you with a fundamental analysis of every company present i
    n the market, and you can have a broader look at their assets, stocks, and shares value before injecting your money i
    n. If you know the company fundamentally, it will benefit you in the long term with good returns as you can trust th
    e company and owners. It lowers the risk of your money getting drowned in this flood of the market. So, it is always
    an excellent choice to analyse and study properly before investing because " precaution is better than cure." And To understand the objects of fundamental analysis, you can join the Best Stock Market Institute in Delhi, where under the guidance of well-experienced faculty, you will learn different aspects of fundamental analysis, which will help you to choose the right shares or stocks to buy

    Thank you 

    Read More

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